Author: Therneavin1978

The Way to Measure Square Footage for Painting Walls

The Way to Measure Square Footage for Painting Walls

When preparing to paint a room, among the most important details to consider is the amount of paint required. Calculating the square footage of your walls accurately will ensure a cost-effective, timely endeavor. Expand your walls is an easy project requiring only a tape measure or yard stick along with a calculator and also basic math skills.

Length Times Height

Assess the length of one wall to be painted in feet. Then assess the height of the wall in feet. Multiply the length of the wall from the height to get the square footage. If you’re painting more than one wall, find the square footage of each wall and then add them together for the total square footage. If there are doors or windows located on the wall, perform the same measurement — length times height to find the square footage of those openings. Subtract the square footage of the door or window from the wall to calculate the total wall area to be painted.

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What Is Torque on a Lawn Mower?

What Is Torque on a Lawn Mower?

It is challenging enough to attempt to figure out family power dimension, but it becomes downright confusing once the method for describing those measurements changes. For example, your house air conditioner was rated in lots, but is currently rated in British Thermal Units, or BTUs. Not so long ago your lawnmower motor was rated in horsepower. Lawnmower manufacturers now typically rate their engines by other measurements, such as cubic centimeter displacement or gross torque.

Turning Power

Horsepower is a measurement of work. It was initially developed by James Watt to describe how much coal a horse could pull from a coal mine over a specified time period. Watt figured a healthy adult horse could transfer 33,000 pounds 1 foot in one minute, making 1 horsepower equivalent to 33,000 foot-pounds/minute. While horsepower measures function, torque measure force against a fixed pivot point. To put it simply, torque is turning electricity.

Lawnmower Torque

While measuring your lawnmower’s engine in horsepower might be more comfortable, since its long history makes it increasingly familiar, your lawnmower’s torque rating might be more useful. Horsepower only explains how much work the engine is capable of producing, whatever the direction in which that function is implemented. Torque explains how much electricity goes to actually turning your lawnmower’s rotary blade.

Lawnmower Design

A number of variables can impact a lawnmower’s gross torque rating, for example, engine configuration, mower configuration and motor size, usually described by cubic centimeter displacement. Based on the way in which the motor and mower are configured, an engine with less horsepower might actually deliver a larger volume of gross torque. Greater torque translates to improved, more efficient performance.

Horsepower to Torque Conversion

If you bought a new lawnmower ahead of the origin of the 21st century, odds are its motor was rated in HP or horsepower. A 3.5 HP motor was generally good enough to handle a small lawn of less than a quarter-acre, while a 5 HP motor would perform the task to get a larger yard. Replacing that old 3.5 HP lawnmower with a present model with the identical amount of power based on its gross torque rating might be challenging, since there’s absolutely no exact conversion method that thrives HP to torque.

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The way to Remove Yellow Stains From Antique White Fabric

The way to Remove Yellow Stains From Antique White Fabric

Antique white sheets provide your decor a crisp, timeless look. Whether you are serving a holiday dinner on a vintage linen tablecloth or decorating a guest room with white lace curtains, yellow stains may ruin the decor. A number of factors can leave yellow stains on your own antique linens, from improper storage to food spills to nicotine in the air. Because chlorine bleach can damage antique linens, use more natural products for yellow-stain elimination.

Lemons and Salt

Cut two large lemons in half and juice them with either using an electric juicer. Pour the juice through a strainer if required to remove seeds and pulp.

Put a clean white towel onto a flat surface. Put the stained section of the vintage fabric above the towel.

Pour the undiluted lemon juice on the stain, saturating it completely.

Rub a generous quantity of table salt to the damp stain with your fingertips and allow it to sit for thirty minutes.

Hold the cloth over a sink and rinse the salt away with vinegar. After rinsing with vinegar, then rinse with cold water.

Peroxide Glue

Mix 1 tbsp of 3-percent hydrogen peroxide with 1 tbsp of cream of tartar in a bowl. Stir the solution using a soft toothbrush.

Scrub the stain gently with the toothbrush, applying more of the peroxide paste as required.

Let the solution sit on the stain for half an hour. Rinse with cool water. Repeat as necessary until the stain is completely eliminated.


Fill a top-loading washing machine using hot water and add 1 cup of vinegar. If you do not have a top-loading machine, fill a bathtub or sink with hot water and add 1 cup of vinegar.

Add the item to the water and let it soak for two to three hours or overnight. Drain the water.

Launder the item in warm water, either by hand or on the delicate cycle, with mild laundry detergent and a scoop of oxygen bleach. If desired, add 1/4 cup of white vinegar to the rinse water.

Hang the item or lay it flat to dry in bright sunlight.

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What to know prior to Replacing a Furnace

What to know prior to Replacing a Furnace

With good maintenance, the normal furnace can last 25 years or more. Since your furnace reaches the end of its life, it may break down frequently or function less efficiently, leading to costly repairs and improved utility bills. Before you replace your furnace, consider the heating capability, fuel supply and cost of each potential replacement option to get the right furnace for your home.

Signs Your Furnace is Out-Of-Date

Age alone is usually not sufficient reason to invest in a new furnace. Instead, look for signs that could help you determine if it’s time to replace your furnace. According to the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, any furnace that originally had a coal burner should be replaced, even if the burner had been previously altered to burn petroleum or gas. The council also suggests replacing your furnace if it’s equipped with a pilot lot as opposed to an electric ignition or even if it is not equipped with vent dampers. The U.S. Department of Energy suggests replacing your furnace if it takes regular repairs or your energy bills appear to be increasing for no great reason. A house that just doesn’t feel cozy and warm anymore or even a noisy heating system may also serve as notice that it’s time to get a new furnace.


When the furnace reaches the end of its life, it may be tempting to just order another unit with the exact same heat capability as your old one. Ordering a furnace that’s the exact same size as your old one may wind up costing you in terms of the upfront and operating costs. That’s because most furnaces are substantially oversized, based on ACEEE. Rather than basing your furnace size off of your house’s square footage, then choose a furnace provider that can allow you to size your new furnace in accordance with the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J. The manual serves as the industry standard for sizing residential heating systems. This technique requires examining the construction of your house, how well it is insulated and other factors that determine just how much heat capacity you’ll want to keep the home warm and cozy.

Efficiency and Payback

The normal furnace costs about $3,000 as of publication time, in accordance with The Old House. Understanding furnace efficiency ratings can help you decide on a new unit that will make it possible for you to recover this cost thanks to reduced energy bills. As an instance, if your present furnace has an efficiency rating of 80 percent and you replace it with one rated at 97 percent, you can cut your annual energy bills by 20 percent. Going out of a 65 percent efficient unit into a 95 percent efficient furnace can save you $32 for each $100 of heating costs, according to ACEEE. You can use this information to determine how long it will take you to pay for your new furnace and if choosing a high efficiency unit is well worth the additional cost.

Fuel Sources

Before you replace your existing gas furnace with a different gas-burning unit, consider the various heating fuel sources available on the market. Prices for gas, petroleum and other fossil fuels have a tendency to fluctuate, so it’s possible that the most inexpensive fuel accessible when you purchased your furnace is no longer the cheapest option. Compare prices and availability for various fuels, and take the time to check out new fuels that weren’t available in earlier times such as wood pellets. Pick a fuel that’s easy to get, great for the environment and affordable, then find a door designed to burn this fuel.

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Common Lime Tree Adaptations

Common Lime Tree Adaptations

The fruit of this lime is used in cooking, cocktails, refreshing juices and even kitchen cleaners. Also grown often in and around the home for its visual beauty, the lime tree has proliferated into many varieties. Each of those varieties features adaptations which help the specific lime tree serve a specific purpose.

Cool Weather

Lime trees are a part of the citrus family also, like many citrus, are indigenous to warm and humid subtropical regions. While lime trees still are a few of the very sensitive to cold, cultivated seedless lime varieties, such as the “Bearss Seedless” lime (Citrus aurantifolia “Bearss” Seedless”), may prosper in U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zone 9 through 11. Older lime varieties, such as the Key lime (Citrus aurantifolia), are too frost sensitive, growing instead in USDA zones 10 and 11.

Manageable Size

While lime trees need full sunlight for healthy development, bringing them inside at night can reduce the chance of frost damage. This is just 1 reason many dwarf varieties of lime trees, such as the “Dwarf Bearss Seedless” lime (Citrus aurantifolia), which grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zone 9 through 10, are readily available. These trees comprise adapted root systems which grow well in containers and also a smaller overall size which make it possible to transfer the plant from place to place without severe distress. These trees make smaller fruit or no fruit at all, and often are grown for decoration rather than as a food crop.


In addition to their edible fruit, lime trees produce fragrant leaves and may add an aromatic dimension to your landscape. Due to this, many varieties, including the Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), which grows in USDA zone 9 through 11, are adapted to produce extra fragrant leaves. These fruit trees produce fewer, if any, fruit which aren’t as flavorful as some other varieties, but also make leaves whose fragrance may waft over the whole landscape.


The sour flavor of a lime is an indicator of the high level of citric acid in the flesh of this fruit. This degree of acidity was adapted by the plant over time to ward off some insects and creatures while attracting others. Varieties, such as the “Bearss” seedless lime generate larger fruit with more flavorful flesh and juice.

Seeds and Seedless

Among the broadest elastic splits between limes is the seeded and seedless split. Seeded limes include the the Key lime. These seeded limes often are smaller but more fragrant. Seedless limes, including the “Bearss” seedless lime, tend to be larger and juicier than their seeded cousins.

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The Plant Pot Sizes for Landscapes

The Plant Pot Sizes for Landscapes

The price of purchasing a landscape plant varies with the magnitude of this pot the plant is in. Until recently, customers looked for quart containers, 1-, 5- and 10-gallon containers and apartments of plants that are smaller. However, these names were not accurate descriptions of this pot’s capacity, therefore the names have changed. It is still buyer beware though — look for well-rooted specimens to prevent paying extra for dirt.


The American National Standards Institute — or ANSI — today regulates pot sizes to infer exactly what size pot you’re becoming. Even signaling the pot’s width, such as a 10-inch pot, doesn’t tell you exactly what the quantity — and therefore the prospective root dimension — of the grass is. 1 grower could utilize a taller 10-inch pot than another grower, leading to different quantity “10-inch” containers. The current ANSI standard for nursery pots premiered in 2004.

Big Pot Classes

Manufactured pots need to fall within the ranges that define their classes. This allows for variations in heights and widths from other manufacturers to suit different growers needs, but nevertheless standardizes the quantity. Manufacturers indicate large container classes by the pound sign, #, followed by a number 1 through 100. Manufacturers used to predict these containers different sized “gallon” pots. Together with all the new container system, the bigger the number, the bigger the container is. In cubic inches of volume, a #1 container — that was commonly called a 1-gallon pot — is 152 to 251 cubic inches, a #2 container is 320 to 474 cubic inches, a #3 container 628 to 742 cubic inches and a #5 container — that was commonly called a 5-gallon container — is 785 to 1242 cubic inches.

Smaller Pot Sizes

Small plant containers, usually holding perennials or annuals, are suggested by “SP” followed by the period of the side of this grass for square pots — or even the diameter, for around pots — measured in inches. Because the period of the pot’s side determines that category it falls under, manufacturers are limited in the grass heights they could create and stay within the allowed volume. There are only five categories for small pots: #SP1 is 6.5 to 8.0 cubic inches, #SP2 13.0 to 15.0 cubic inches, #SP3 20.0 to 30.0 cubic inches, #SP4 — previously called a combined container — is 51 to 63 cubic inches and #SP5 is 93 to 136 cubic inches. Cell packs, such as SP pots, must indicate the period of the side of the individual cell plus the number of cells are in the tray.

What Kind Pot to purchase

Nurseries sell annual plants at the #SP 1 through 5 sizes. The larger the pot, the more room the origins have had to climb and the sooner the plant will have the ability to blossom. You can find lower-priced perennials at #SP 4 or even #SP 5 pots, but they might not bloom the first year. Commonly, #1 containers hold second year perennials or young shrubs, while more mature shrubs are offered at #2 to #5 containers. The bigger container sizes, such as #95, are for trees.

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Yard Plants for a Beach Look

Yard Plants for a Beach Look

Beach plants tend to develop low and scrubby within their native environment. Don’t expect them to behave in this way when implanted in your garden, however. Without the pressures of the beach environment, like salt spray and winds, their growth habit may be quite different. When creating a beach-themed lawn, choose native plants and you can not go wrong.


A common groundcover you’ll find on beaches is a type of Ceanothus (C. thyrsiflorus repens), hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8a through 10. Tolerant of a wide array of temperatures and soil conditions, it provides delicate blue blooms to your beach-themed garden. Another attractive flowering groundcover to think about is the seaside daisy (Ergeron glaucus). Seaside daisy is tolerant of full sun in cooler areas as well as partial shade where summers get warm. On top of that, it attracts butterflies.


Beach grasses are component of any vision of wind-swept sand dunes. Whether you choose to produce grasses that the dominant plant on your beach-themed garden or use them as accent pieces, then you’ll realize that they add the last thematic touch to your garden. Look for seashore bluegrass (Poa macrantha), or any bentgrass, reedgrass or oatgrass to give authenticity to your beach-themed garden.


The baby bear manzanita (Arctostaphylos densiflora x bakeri “Baby Bear”), hardy in USDA zones 7 through 10, is a small rounded shrub, ideal wherever you want a pop of color. It also works well when planted in groups, to form a hedge. Baby bear produces pink blossom clusters and becomes a small hummingbird magnet while in bloom. For a little place to fill, the coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis), growing in USDA zones 5 through 11, is one of the plants that succumbs to the ecological pressures of life in the beach and remains low-growing. In the garden, however, it may grow taller and require pruning to keep it into the size you desire.


For a touch of the tropical, consider trees. Many palm species do well in colder climates. Think about the California fan palm (Washingtonia filifera), the exact same tree that adorns the Hollywood strip. Hardy in USDA zones 8b through 11, this palm is frost tolerant, requiring little water and hardly any upkeep. It does tend to be somewhat pricey, however. Less expensive, and not quite as tall is that the saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), which enjoys full sun and grows slowly within USDA plant hardiness zones 8 through 11.

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Lime Green Grasses for Landscaping

Lime Green Grasses for Landscaping

Ornamental grasses are available in hundreds of varieties, with various heights, increase habits, hardiness and leaf color, making them extremely versatile plants that have many uses in a house landscape. Some grass types possess leaf in interesting colours, including several cultivars with leaves at a mild, yellowish-green that looks like the color of fresh limes. All these make excellent additions to borders and beds, especially when mixed with deep-green grasses or vibrant flowering plants.

Japanese Forest Grass

Golden-yellow Japanese forest grass (Hakonechloa macra “Aureola”) is an ornamental grass that reaches a height of 1 to 1 1/2 feet and also an equal spread, forming dense, spreading clumps with gracefully arching, narrow-bladed leaves. The leaves are a yellowish-green with a dark green central vein and green borders. The plants do well in either sun or shade, but the lime-green color of their leaves is accentuated when they are grown in colour. In summertime, the grass produces loose clumps of tiny, yellow-green flowers at the ends of long stems. The variety is reliably hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zone 5 and over.

Autumn Moor Grass

Autumn moor grass (Sesleria autumnalis) is just a drought-tolerant grass that is flexible to all ground types and prefers cool temperatures and low humidity. It reaches a height of 8 to 12 inches at maturity and has especially narrow lime-green-colored leaves. Its narrow flower stalks are also lime-green and appear in late summer and early fall. Due to its relatively low height, autumn moor grass is a good choice as a ground cover and especially attractive when grown as a mass planting under trees. It’s reliably hardy in USDA zone 5 and over.

Palm Sedge

Palm sedge grass (Carex muskingumensis) is also an easy-to-grow plant indigenous to western North America. It forms dense clumps of erect, 20-inch-tall stems capped by 8-inch-long grass blades at a mild lime-green; its leaves are reminiscent of palm fronds, giving the plant its name. Palm sedge grass spreads slowly by rhizomes and also self-seeds readily. It prefers sun to partial shade and needs moist dirt, also growing nicely in shallow water that is 3 or 4 inches deep. The plant is hardy in zone 4 and above, and is an exceptional selection for stream beds or near other water features.

Zebra Grass

Zebra grass (Miscanthus sinensis “Zebrinus”) gets its name from its leaves, which contain horizontal bands of yellow alternating with mild green patches, giving the plant an overall lime-green color when seen from a slight distance. A tall plant, zebra grass may reach a height of 8 feet with a spread of 4 to 6 feet. It does well in sun or partial shade and tolerates heat and humidity. In fall, it produces floral clusters that may last through winter. The plant expands gradually in circumference but maintains a tight clump contour, making it a good choice as a portion of a screen planting or as a specimen plant. It’s hardy in zone 5 and over.

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How Far to Plant an Oak Tree In a Septic Drain Field?

How Far to Plant an Oak Tree In a Septic Drain Field?

Clogged septic systems cost homeowners thousands of dollars every year in replacement and repair. Tree roots are often found to be responsible for the congestion, a situation that may be avoided by planting specific types of trees a minimum safe distance from septic tanks and drainage fields. Oak trees are thought to be one of the safest trees to plant in these locations, since their origins systems aren’t as widespread and are far less invasive than those of other species.

Minimum Distance

Oak trees (Quercus spp.) Are one of the few trees that origins are classified as not posing much of a threat to septic systems, drainage fields along with other underground pipes. Still, the evidence detailing oak tree root growth contradicts this theory, as the origins of a mature oak tree may fan out as much as 90 or more feet from its base. Recommended planting distances of 15 feet are geared toward young trees whose origins systems are still developing but do not consider the way in which oak tree roots develop, which would imply a minimal planting distance equal to the tree’s height at maturity. This translates to a distance equal to or greater than 70 feet from a tree that’s 70 feet tall, and this disregards the frequent thinking that a pine tree’s root system normally does not stretch much farther underground than its highest branch width.

Oak Root Development

Oak trees spread by way of acorns that fall from the trees in early autumn in most regions. Under the right conditions, acorns become quickly established in which they drop, sending down a root often within days of coming into contact with the dirt. This original root, or tap root, can travel vertically into the ground to as much as 5 feet prior to the tree’s first leaves begin to develop. The seedling’s energy then shifts to the areas of the plant above the ground, along with the tap root starts sending out side, or posterior, roots that grow horizontally away from the plant. Lateral roots keep growing in this way in search of water and nutrients and are naturally attracted to the sort of very fertile nutrient-rich, dirt normally found near septic tanks and leach fields. Even if a pine tree is supposed to be located a safe distance from a drainage area, there’s absolutely no guarantee that its origins won’t search out its effluents, especially if it is growing in an area that sees little yearly rainfall.

Oak Tree Placement

Oak trees, including bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), white oak (Quercus alba), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra) are also regarded as low risks to septic systems by some establishments, such as the Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois. Though other types of trees such as willows are natural water seekers and shouldn’t be implanted in the neighborhood of a septic system in any way, trees such as oaks might be considered risks due their increased drought tolerance. Planting oaks at least 50 feet off — or more, if the tree is going to develop into a significant one — in the farthest point of a drain area provides a relatively wide buffer zone, especially in regions that experience adequate rainfall.


Oak tree roots should not be trusted to remain in their own planned boundaries even if they are implanted what is thought to be a secure distance from septic systems. Additionally, oak trees can easily be threatened by any kind of root disturbance that includes building too near or above them, moving the dirt over or near them, or attempting to trim any that are protruding through the soil’s surface. Along with being a potential threat to sewage systems, a pine tree’s vulnerability to any kind of disturbance reinforces the need to plan where it goes well in advance of the actual planting, since it will be too late to make any changes once the tree is created other than to cut it down. In short, find oak trees in regions where there is the least likelihood that they will become problematic.

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Bush Bean Plants & Soil Deficiencies

Bush Bean Plants & Soil Deficiencies

Steamed, stir-fried, roasted or new, bush beans are a delicious addition to any summertime meal. Domesticated versions of South American plants, they have been selectively bred over time to add cultivars like apartment Italian green, French filet, purple-podded and yellow wax. Self-supporting, easy-to-grow bush beans can achieve about 2 feet in height and produce greatest in soils with the proper pH and sufficient nutrients.

Soil Test

Conduct a soil test in a new or untested garden to determine soil pH and the content of vital nutrients in your garden. While easy test kits are available at most garden centres, sending your soil samples to a professional laboratory gives you a more accurate and complete picture. To gather soil, scrape on the surface free of sticks, stones and other debris. Utilizing a stainless-steel trowel, dig a hole 6 to 8 inches deep and have a soil scraping from the side of hole. Repeat this in at least six distinct spots on your garden, combining the trials together in a clean plastic bucket. Do this a few months before planting — it might take up to four weeks to receive your results back and you need enough time to work in any recommended amendments.

Adjusting pH

Although beans are not overly special about fertility, they don’t prefer a soil pH from the 6 to 6.8 range. This measurement of the soils’ level of acidity or alkalinity affects their wellbeing. If the pH is from the desired variety, plant growth goes down — the beans cannot uptake the nutrients and minerals they need from the soil. In this weakened condition, they are more susceptible to fungus and disease. Most soils in moist, wooded spaces tend toward the acidic variety and need a shot of agricultural lime worked into the soil to increase pH. Ideally, this slow-release soil amendment should be added a few months before planting time.

Nitrogen and Phosphorous

Nitrogen is a vital component in bean’s photosynthesis and leaf development. A deficiency causes yellowing leaves and an overall paleness. But like all beans, legumes possess the capability to make their own nitrogen. Unless your soil test indicates a serious nitrogen deficiency, then avoid adding any to your garden bed. Excess nitrogen ends in boisterous leaf growth at the expense of fruit production. Simply dusting your beans with a seed inoculant at planting time primes them to make as much nitrogen as they need. Phosphorous is just another basic nutrient. It is required for reproduction, cell growth and fruit production. Too little stunts plants and also an excess can add an unwanted bitter flavor. Adhere to the recommendations from your soil test results for any required phosphorous.


The all-around soil enhancer, compost needs to be a part of the soil improvement plan irrespective of your test results. Two to 3 inches worked to your own beds helps to protect against a soil crust that can inhibit the emergence of tender new bean plants. In addition, it helps to retain moisture, improve drainage and adds beneficial microorganisms. Furthermore, compost suppresses diseases and insects while promoting higher yields.

Growing Tips

This warm-season crop should not be implanted until soil temperatures have been at least 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Plant seeds 1 inch deep, 2 to 4 inches apart, keeping the soil moist but not soaked throughout the germination period. After plants have fully emerged, thin them to each 4 ins and mulch with straw, wood chips, grass clippings or leaves to keep moisture and moderate soil temperature. Overhead watering encourages leaf disease — use a soaker hose or water at soil level. Planting every 2 weeks extends you season. Pick often to encourage production and plant beans at a new spot each year to discourage any disease buildup.

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